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  • ALERT: Do not send your samples for MELISA testing to the lab in Germany due to the closure of the lab. More information HERE.


Substances tested


A wide variety of metals can be tested, either by selecting panels or by selecting individual metals according to the patient's exposure. Although each laboratory will have its own testing panels, typical panels are HERE.

Each laboratory will offer slightly different testing panels. Typically, the panels will be based on the patient’s current exposure. Ideally, patients should contact their health care provider to find out the exact composition of their fillings, crowns, wires, pin and/or implants. The clinic/laboratory testing panels have been devised to include the most commonly found allergy causing metals in various metal alloys used in dentistry and surgery.

A detailed overview of metals found in frequently used dental and orthopaedic restorations as well as an overview of metals present in our environment could be found HERE.

The metals in the middle of the periodic table are called transition metals. Most of the metals used in dental restorations such as titanium, chromium, nickel, gold and mercury are transition metals. As the name suggests, they are unstable and their ions may bind to enzymes and cell proteins in the body. Most people will not react the new metal bound to protein structure. However, in genetically susceptible people, the new structure will activate an immune response and might lead to allergy and autoimmunity.

Theoretically, all metals can provoke allergy reactions, but certain metals are more frequently allergy-inducing than others. Also, we are more frequently exposed to certain metals, mainly nickel, from food and jewellery, cobalt and chromium from orthopaedic implants, titanium from implants and cosmetics and mercury, from amalgam fillings and polluted fish.

If you have been occupationally exposed to a metal which is not tested routinely, please contact us and we will try to arrange or possibly develop testing for you.

Gluten / Gliadin

Cereals are among the most common foods to induce an immune reaction. There are four types of proteins present in cereals defined as albumins, globulins, prolamins and glutelins. 30-60% of the protein content consists of prolamin. The name prolamin refers to its high content of proline and glutamine. 50% of the protein in oat, barley and wheat consists of these amino acids.

Food allergies may be immediate, type I allergies sometimes causing anaphylaxis caused by IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation and histamine release. Or food allergies may be type IV cell mediated reactions with food-specific T cells as key players. For instance coeliac disease is sometimes described as type IV hypersensitivity to gluten, the protein found in wheat, barley and rye.

In a Swedish study (unpublished) 20 patients with irritable colon, eczema and premenstrual syndrome, often combined with psychological problems, were studied before and after elimination of cereals from their diet. Almost all of the patients noticed a positive effect following the elimination of gluten-containing meals, the majority immediately or within a week. Seven of the patients were tested for tissue transglutaminase but none had positive results. Thus, in these patients, serum tests seemed to have limited diagnostic value. In cooperation with the Swiss allergologist Dr Paul Corthay, and the MELISA laboratory in Geneva, we have conducted a study on the use of MELISA for the diagnosis of gluten allergy in patients attending allergy clinics near Geneva. Most of the patients suffered from various allergies but psychological and gastrointestinal problems often complicated the clinical picture. In addition to detailed anamnesis and testing with MELISA, prick test with food extracts and serum transglutaminase IgG and IgA were also determined.

In preliminary experiments, gluten extract did not induce significant lymphocyte proliferation in non-allergic healthy subjects.

In a 2006 study, 136 patients were tested to gluten and dental metals by the MELISA test. Forty-four patients were found gluten-positive (32%) while serum tests were only rarely positive. Gluten-positive patients responded significantly more often to dental metals as compared to gluten-negative patients (P< 0,001 for Hg, Sn, Ti, Al, and P< 0,05 for Pb, MeHg, Ni, Thimerosal). Skin prick tests depended on the individual variability (the quality of the skin) and varied largely. MELISA testing for gliadin/gluten may be useful to detect non-coeliac gluten sensitivity.

Gluten-specific MELISA seems to be clinically relevant as shown is some case reports. After strict avoidance of gluten-containing foods, gluten-positive lymphocyte reactivity returned to normal and the patients' health improved. Therefore it is important that subjects are still eating gluten containing foods prior to MELISA testing.

In conclusion, gluten reactivity seems to be common in patients with allergic diseases and the simultaneous testing of gluten together with metal testing seems to be beneficial to the patient.


Casein is a protein commonly found in milk from mammals. As a food source, casein is found in virtually all milk-based dairy products, including butter, cheese and ice cream. It's also found as an ingredient in some foods claimed as "non-dairy," margarine and soy cheese products included. The symptoms associated with a casein allergy can be immediate and include wheezing, difficulty breathing, vomiting and hives, swelling of the lips, mouth and tongue and face. The reaction for a casein intolerance takes a bit more time to appear. Gastrointestinal problems, such as diarrhea, bloating and abdominal cramps, are common symptoms but joint pain, fatigue and behavioral changes can also occur.


Candida albicans is a form of yeast. Found in approximately 80% of the human population, it usually doesn’t cause any harm but overgrowth can result in candidiasis. Candidiasis is often observed in immuno-compromised individuals. While symptoms vary, they can include bloating, abdominal distension, and food intolerances but also profound tiredness, depression and anxiety. A positive MELISA result indicates that a patient is likely to have Candida overgrowth and should consider treatment.